- No cotton. Cotton absorbs perspiration and does not dry quickly. It also takes up too much space and weight for packing. If you want a fabric naturally sourced from plants, look for organic cotton blended with faster-drying fabrics, such as Tencel (lyocell) or Bamboo. Tencel is a fabric produced from the pulp of the eucalyptus tree. Bamboo is a type of rayon produced from the fast-growing bamboo plant. Both dry more quickly than cotton.
- Tencel absorbs 50% more moisture than cotton and bamboo absorbs up to 60% more than cotton.
- Lyocell is manufactured in the U.S. by Lenzing in Mobile, Alabama. Bamboo is predominately manufactured in China.
- Wicking. Synthetic fabrics wick away the perspiration from your body to the outer layer of the fabric where it can easily evaporate, helping you to stay dry and comfortable. Look for performance fabrics, which contain Polyester or Merino Wool. Polyester is an excellent lightweight synthetic and wool is a natural wicking fiber.
- Polyester is often a better choice for staying dry and cool. It is best suited for hot, humid climate (such as the South).
- Wool is often a better choice for staying dry and warm in cool, humid climates (such as the Pacific Northwest). It is warmer by weight than polyester.
- Shirts: Look for 100% polyester or blends with a small amount of nylon (nylon adds durability) and a ribbed/waffle pattern. The weave characteristic will feel less sticky against than skin. Or, look for merino wool which is softer and less itchy than traditional wool.
- If you are trying to decide between polyester or wool, keep in mind that wool comes from an animal. Give careful consideration of the welfare of the animal before deciding to purchase wool. Check where the wool is sourced. Australia does not have a good record when it comes to raising sheep for wool. U.S., Canadian, and New Zealand Merino is a safer bet (i.e. Ibex, Icebreaker, Smartwool).
- If you don’t like the idea of wearing environmentally unfriendly synthetics or animal-based fiber, consider Patagonia. They use recycled polyester in many of their clothes (the capilene series is a good example).
- Pants: Look for 100% nylon. Convertible pants with zip-off legs are great for year around hiking. Look for ones that have an integrated drawstring or belt to cinch the waist, ankle cinch (handy to keep debris from entering into shoes), and a few side pockets (you’ll find a use for them, i.e. TP, knife, etc). Hiking in wet areas or bushwhacking? Look for pants treated with DWR (Durable Water Repellent). DWR does bead off the water and keep pants drier. It will wear off over time, but can be re-treated.
- UPF Rating. Clothing with an ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) rating that offers UV sun protection from 15+ (good) to 50+ (excellent) is a great choice if you will be hiking in open, exposed areas. The UPF in fabric will not fade or wash off over time. More useful for shirts.
- Loose Fit. The clothing should ‘semi-fitted’ or loose enough to allow for adequate air circulation. The bottom of the shirt should be long enough to cover the lowest part of your back (or allow for tucking into pants/shorts) to prevent the backpack from chafing your bare skin.
- Socks. The same fabrics recommended for clothing apply to socks – wicking. Wicking socks are important for keeping feet dry and preventing blisters. Look for Merino Wool blends (best) or Coolmax Polyester blends (good). Why is wool better? Wool, unlike other fibers, is naturally anti-bacterial, helping socks stay stink-free after a few uses. While polyester is great for wicking water, it is not anti-bacterial. The fatty lipids in your sweat are not wicked away and builds up on the fabric, contributing to the stench.
- Look for wool blends containing at least 60% Merino Wool (not from Australia) and Nylon (for durability) and Spandex (for stretch).
- Make sure you purchase socks that are tight fitting. Loose socks will create a wrinkle inside your boot and cause a blister.
- Purchase socks with padding on the bottom of the sole. Your feet will tire much less with cushioning support.
- Make sure the toe and heel area is reinforced to help the sock stay comfortable and last longer.
- We like the Darn Tough brand of socks. Smart Wool is also great.
- Rain Gear. Never hike without it – you just never know when you will be caught in a rainstorm. Take an ordinary poncho or a waterproof jacket/rain suit that is breathable. I have even seen backpackers pack their umbrella. When it comes to rain gear, it really depends on what type of hiking you will be doing, the season, and your threshold for soggy / wet / damp.
- If you purchase a poncho, make sure what you are getting is sized to cover you and your backpack. We like the ponchos made by Frog Toggs and Sierra Designs.
- The advantage of a poncho is that it offers good rain protection in a downpour and can be used for other (non-rain) purposes such as a tarp/temporary rain shelter/groundcloth. The main disadvantage is that it is not breathable and you will start to feel damp and uncomfortable after a while.
- Sun hat. Hats not only prevent sunburn, but are also good for keeping insects from dropping into your hair – especially useful when you are bush whacking.
- Look for a hat with a 360 degree brim to protect your face, ears and neck. Make sure the material is flexible so it can easily cinch into your backpack.
- Look for mesh fabric on the top of the hat to allow for ventilation.
Cold Weather Clothing Considerations
- Layers. Wear several layers (3-4 work well) of various weight clothing. A lightweight wicking base layer, a middleweight second or third layer (insulator), and a waterproof shell/jacket. A base layer helps to regulate body temperature by keeping you dry, middle layers by providing insulation, and an external layer for protection against the elements (i.e. water, thorns, insects, wind). Layers work because they trap pockets of air between clothing in which the body has warmed. Layering also allows you to quickly add or remove clothing to adjust to temperature changes throughout the day.
- Never wear just a single heavy garment, even if it is heavier than the combined weight of the layers. Insulation from a single layer doesn’t work.
- Base Layer: Breathable wicking fibers like wool and polyester make excellent insulating base layers.
- Middle Layer: Insulating fibers might include warmer synthetics such as nylon, fleece/polyester, and poly/olefin blends (Thinsulate).
- Outer Layer: Waterproof and breathable fibers such as Goretex in the summers/rain. Warm Polar Fleece in the winter.
- Hat. We lose a lot of our body heat from our head – anywhere from 10 – 30%.Wearing a hat that covers your ears helps prevent heat loss.
- Look for insulating fibers. Wool and fleece are both excellent.
- Gloves. Mittens are most effective for keeping hands warm. They also offer the least amount of dexterity. If you prefer wearing gloves, wear 2 pairs: A tight fitting silk or poly liner and a fleece, wool or neoprene outer glove.
- Look for gloves/mittens that have an adjustable cuff. The cuff should be high enough to cover your wrist and can be adjusted for a snug fit. Otherwise, heat loss will result and snow will easily fall into the glove.
- Socks. Same as summer considerations, but may want heavier socks or layering.
- Consider a sock liner made of silk, polyester or nylon. The liner should be very thin and fit tight. Thin black dress socks work quite well for this purpose.
- Feet sweat more than any other part of the body. Dry your wet socks by stuffing them into your sleeping bag at night. They’ll be warm and dry from your body heat by morning.
Should I purchase cheap clothing?
Not unless you can tolerate poor quality and don’t mind replacing the cheap stuff more frequently. If you enjoy the outdoors, chances are you are involved in several hobbies that take you there. Purchasing high-quality clothing will give you a multitude of uses, saving you more money over the long-term. Purchase clothing during the off-season when it is often marked down.
Properties of Various Fabrics taken from: http://www.icebike.org/Articles/fabrics.htm
|Brand Name||Construction||Wicking||Layer||Design Use|
|Xalt||Two-layer Gore-Tex clone||No||outer||Breathing|
|Activent||Not air permeable yet
|DryLine||Two Layer Polyester/Nylon||Yes||base||Warmth|
|Thermastat||Dacron (hollow core)||Yes||base||Warmth|
|Versatech||Windproof Water resist||No||outer||Breathing|
|Therma F.I.T.||Polyester Fleece||Yes||mid/outer||Warmth|
|Windstopper||Windproof Micro Fleece
|Pile & Pertex||Windproof Micro Fleece
*Breathable here refers to water vapor transiting the fabric.